The Free On-line Aquaculture Dictionary

Vaccine administration methods

Method Detail and effectiveness
Oral  Addition to diet. No stress but inefficient in practice as digestive enzymes break down the vaccine. Must be fed over long periods to attain any effectiveness.
Injection May be intra peritoneal or intra muscular. Stressful. Rapid protection and effective. Time consuming and only effective where machines are used or  if species value is very high.
Immersion Easiest solution for small fish of <10g. Stressful but effective. takes typically 2-3times longer to take effect when compared to injection.
Spray Quick method and less stress than injection or immersion. Less effective than immersion.
Hyper osmotic infiltration Involves the transfer of fish to different salinities to enable the vaccine in the water to be drawn into the body through osmotic pressure. Stressful with poor or at best unpredictable results.